The Anti-Diabetic Medicine

Rosiglitazone belongs in the class of thiazolidinedione drugs. However, using this anti-diabetic drug requires doctor supervision as it may cause or worsen heart failure and increase the risk of developing heart-related problems in some patients.

Thiazolidinedione is a class of anti-diabetic drugs in which Rosiglitazone belongs. Available under the brand name, Avandia, Rosiglitazone is used to treat type 2 diabetes. This drug is more effective if used along with proper diet and exercise. Rosiglitazone can also be used alone or combined with other anti-diabetic medicines.

Medication Guide:

Rosiglitazone has the capability to lower blood sugar by making the cells in your body sensitive to insulin action. This oral anti-diabetic agent improves your body’s glycemic control as well as reduces circulating insulin levels. The drug is adjunct to exercise and proper diet to make it effective in improving glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Patients should start taking Rosiglitazone at the lowest recommended dosage. Increasing its dosage should be done so with doctor’s supervision and careful monitoring for any adverse events.

Limitation of Use:

You should not take Rosiglitazone if you have any allergy to one of its ingredient, have moderate or severe heart failure, history of liver problems, type 1 diabetes and taking nitrates. Before taking this drug, you should inform your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to get pregnant or breast-feeding. You should also tell your doctor if you have diabetic ketoacidoses, abnormal live function or have liver problems, swelling problems or heart problems.

Taking other medicines may cause adverse interaction. Tell your doctor if you are taking insulin or nitrates such as nitroglycerin, oral anti-diabetic medicines or gemfibrozil, rifampicin or anti-coagulants.

Possible Adverse Reactions:

Side effects of Rosiglitazone vary by patients. But the common side effects are weight gain and headache. Some patients may also experience severe allergic reactions such as difficulty breathing, itching, rashes, tightness in the chest, fainting, blurred vision, stomach pain, symptoms of hypoglycemia or low blood sugar such as increased sweating, drowsiness, anxiety or dizziness, chills, tremors, unusual bone pain, tiredness or weakness. Any side effect should not be taken for granted. Consult our doctor immediately.

Research on New Anti Diabetes Drug Byetta

Diabetes is a common condition currently affecting almost 200 million adults worldwide. To date, it is one of the leading causes of blindness as well as death through it’s effects on the cardiovascular system of affected people. Type 2 diabetes is a version of diabetes that affects 90 percent of the world’s diabetics. It involves the failure of the body’s pancreatic cells to address the increased demands of the body for insulin, and usually results from obesity related insulin resistance.

Two common oral medications taken to combat diabetes are metformin and a sulfonylurea. These two do not always prove effective in combating blood sugar levels, however, requiring more advanced treatments for patients.

Recently however, researchers in Europe and the United States have come up with a new type of medicine called Incretin Mimetics. This new anti diabetes medicine is so named because it mimics incretin, a naturally occurring hormone that stimulates the body’s production of insulin to combat elevated levels of blood sugar. While some diabetics rely on external sources of insulin via injections to help their condition, this new medicine allows the body to create higher levels of insulin instead.

Another naturally occurring effect of incretin is to slow down the rate at which the blood stream absorbs nutrients, leading to both a reduction in sugar absorption in the bloodstream and reduced food intake. Given that type 2 diabetes is also related to obesity, this means that incretin mimetics also help contribute to weight loss, which will also assist in the suppression of diabetes.

Several US based firms like Eli Lilly and Co. and Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. are promoting the use of incretin mimetics. Their version of incretin mimetics is known as exanatide, and it is the first of it’s kind to be made for mass production and marketing. Tentatively, they are giving their medicine the brand name Byetta. It has not yet been released on the global markets, but currently it has already seen positive results in testing.

40 studies were conducted across 20 countries, and involved 4000 patients. These studies showed that the use of exanatide proved as effective as insulin injections in controlling blood sugar levels. Additionally, most of the patients lost a significant amount of excess body weight. Because of it’s weight loss effect, in the long run it is projected that the reduction of a patient’s obesity will itself also help combat diabetes, making exanatide more effetive than insulin injection as a means of addressing diabetes.

Byetta is not intended to be a single cure-all for diabetes, however. It’s primary role in the market is to help diabetics who are unaffected by metformin and a sulfonylurea, which are two widespread medications taken to combat diabetes. Since diabetics who are unaffected by these medicines usually have to take insulin injections to keep their blood sugar levels manageable, Byetta offers them another alternative treatment.

The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Evaluation Agency has given positive support of Byetta as a potential new medication to counteract the effects of diabetes, and full scale production and release of Byetta into the world wide market is projected for the first quarter of next year, 2007. The product is expected to see initial introduction in the European market when it is first released, as almost 25% of the world’s type 2 diabetics are located in Europe.

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Type 2 Diabetes – Drugs Used to Treat Diabetes and Prevent Complications!

In a recent prospective study conducted in the United Kingdom, it was shown less than twenty-five percent of people with Type 2 diabetes who rely on diet and exercise are able to maintain their blood sugar level within normal limits, according to APC Diabetes Care Guide.

Furthermore, less than ten percent of these diabetics achieve their blood sugar goal after nine years. As a result of this rather poor blood sugar control, diabetologists around the world agreed that the use of drugs to help fight the disease is an integral part of management of Type 2 diabetes. The hope is more diabetics can control their blood sugar levels. The more this blood parameter is controlled, the more chance there will be of preventing long-term complications.

Although many people find they can bring their blood sugar back to a normal range by limiting their carbohydrate intake, not everyone is prepared to follow such a restrictive plan for the rest of their lives.

What are the different types of anti-diabetic medications?

1. Insulin: Insulin is a special hormone synthesized within the body to facilitate the transport of glucose across the cell membranes to provide energy which is required both for cell function and survival. In diabetics, the pancreas which is the producer of insulin, becomes exhausted resulting in lesser amounts of insulin circulating in the blood. Decreased amounts of insulin leads to less energy being transported to the cells and this, in turn, results in an array of complications that may have been prevented with the normal level of insulin.

So, with the administration of insulin via injection, immediate and long-term complications may be prevented. And with the regular use of insulin, glucose utilization within the cells can be normalized and, of course, blood sugar level will be better controlled.

2. Oral anti-diabetic medications: Oral anti-diabetic medications are more frequently used in people with Type 2 diabetes compared to insulin. It is usually started when a Type 2 diabetic is unable to achieve normal blood sugar levels despite lifestyle modifications. There are different kinds of oral anti-diabetic medications and these can be classified according to their particular method of action in achieving better blood sugar control:

  • Insulin secretagogues stimulate the pancreas to secrete more insulin. The best known include sulfunylureas: glyburide (Micronase, DiaBeta, Glynase), and glipizide (Glucotrol), and non-sulfunylureas secretagogues which include repaglinide (Prandin) and nateglinide (Starlix)
  • Insulin sensitizers enhance the sensitivity of muscles and fat to the stimulation of insulin. With better insulin sensitivity, the transport of glucose across the cell membranes of muscles and fat is more efficient. The types of insulin sensitizers biguanides, includes metformin (Glucophage). The ADA recommends metformin should be the first drug prescribed for a person with Type 2 Diabetes. Unlike so many other drugs metformin does not cause weight gain. Metformin is also used in combination with insulin or other oral anti-diabetic medications.

The natural course of Type 2 diabetes results in progressive insulin secretion failure from the pancreas and worsening of insulin resistance, or a decreased response of cells and tissues to the action of insulin. But with appropriate and timely administration of these medications, problems can be prevented. Later stage complications of uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes and blood sugar such as:

  • cardiovascular diseases
  • renal complications
  • nerve complications, and
  • eye complications

can also be avoided or, at least, delayed.

It should also be stated that oral anti-diabetic medications have limited power… alone they cannot bring your blood sugar levels back into the normal range… they are an add-on to dietary control.